Protein foam from non-animal sources is preferred, because of the possible threats of biological contaminants such as prions. Every type of foam has its application. High-expansion foams are used when an enclosed space, such as a basement or hangar, must be quickly filled. Low-expansion foams are used on burning spills. Water has long been a universal agent for suppressing fires, but is not best in all cases. For example, water is typically ineffective on oil fires, and can be dangerous. Fire-fighting foams were a development for extinguishing oil fires.
In , a method of extinguishing flammable liquid fires by blanketing them with foam was introduced by Russian engineer and chemist Aleksandr Loran.
Loran was a teacher in a school in Baku , the center of the Russian oil industry at that time. Impressed by large, difficult-to-extinguish oil fires that he had seen there, Loran tried to find a liquid substance that could deal effectively with them. He invented fire-fighting foam, which was successfully tested in experiments in and The original foam was a mixture of two powders and water produced in a foam generator.
It was called chemical foam because of the chemical action to create it. In general, the powders used were sodium bicarbonate and aluminium sulfate , with small amounts of saponin or liquorice added to stabilise the bubbles. Hand-held foam extinguishers used the same two chemicals in solution. To actuate the extinguisher, a seal was broken and the unit inverted, allowing the liquids to mix and react.
Chemical foam is a stable solution of small bubbles containing carbon dioxide with lower density than oil or water, and exhibits persistence for covering flat surfaces. Chemical foam is considered obsolete today because of the many containers of powder required, even for small fires. In the s, Percy Lavon Julian developed an improved type of foam called Aerofoam.
Using mechanical action, a liquid protein -based concentrate, made from soy protein , was mixed with water in either a proportioner or an aerating nozzle to form air bubbles with the free-flowing action. Its expansion ratio and ease of handling made it popular. Protein foam is easily contaminated by some flammable liquids, so care should be used so that the foam is applied only above the burning liquid.
Protein foam has slow knockdown characteristics, but it is economical for post-fire security. Will B. Jamison, a Pennsylvania Mining Engineer, read about the proposed foam in , requested more information about the idea. He proceeded to work with the US Bureau of Mines on the idea, testing formulas until a suitable compound was found. In the s, National Foam, Inc. Its active agent is a fluorinated surfactant that provides an oil-rejecting property to prevent contamination. In general, it is better than protein foam because its longer blanket life provides better safety when entry is required for rescue.
Fluoroprotein foam has fast knockdown characteristics and it can also be used together with dry chemicals that destroy protein foam. This synthetic foam has a low viscosity and spreads rapidly across the surface of most hydrocarbon fuels. A water film forms beneath the foam, which cools the liquid fuel, stopping the formation of flammable vapors.
This provides dramatic fire knockdown, an important factor in crash rescue fire fighting. In the early s, National Foam, Inc. Polar solvents are combustible liquids that destroy conventional fire-fighting foam. These solvents extract the water contained in the foam, breaking down the foam blanket. Hence, these fuels require an alcohol- or polar-solvent-resistant foam.
Alcohol-resistant foam must be bounced off of a surface and allowed to flow down and over the liquid to form its membrane, compared to standard AFFF that can be sprayed directly onto the fire. In , Pyrocool Technologies Inc. The wetting agent is marketed under the name of Pyrocool.
Pyrocool Technologies Inc. Studies have shown that PFOS is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutant.
After the Fire (Hidden Cove Firefighters, #1) by Kathryn Shay
One study, published in , found that firefighters were more likely to have fluorinated surfactants in their blood stream. Surface water, ground water and fish were reported to contain chemicals from firefighting foams that had been released by the local Royal Australia Air Force base prior to training protocol changes in As of [update] the Department of Defence is dealing with two class action suits brought by those affected by contamination at Williamtown and at Army Aviation Centre Oakey. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section contains content that is written like an advertisement.
Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view.
The Fire Inside
February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Archived from the original on 29 September But when they are forced to work together on an arson case, sparks fly.
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Imagine his surprise when he finds himself attracted to the feisty journalist with deep scars from her past. The arson case is solved but not before both their lives are endangered. I'm a firefighter in Tennessee; some of this hit home to me. Thank you for a great series.
I couldn't put the book actually, my iPad down! I had to tether myself to the outlet as I ran out of battery and couldn't wait to recharge my tablet. It certainly gave me an even greater appreciation for our firefighters and policemen. This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue? Upload Sign In Join. Home Books Romance. Save For Later. Create a List. Hidden Cove Firefighters by Kathryn Shay.
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