The strategy was developed based on extensive consultation, a critical review of experience and lessons learned over the past decade, and a review of relevant experience in KM in other international organizations. Knowledge Management Strategy. Type Policies and Strategies, Strategy. Related documents. KM Action Plan flyer. Knowledge has become the dynamic force in our global competition. Managing this power in the most effectively and efficiently leads the organization to attain competitive advantage leveraging the resources and capabilities for achieving its objectives.
Dunn and Neumeister define KM as a systematic approach to managing and leveraging an organization's knowledge asset, which may include knowledge of the organization's customer's, products, market, processes, finances and personal services. Knowledge management is a systematic approach which will combine the ability of the resources and intellectual capital encouraged through various means and method for knowledge sharing which will enable the organization to depend on its own sources encouraged through various means and method for knowledge sharing which will enable the organization to depend on its own sources and gain competitive advantage through effective decision-making, efficient implementation, and innovation.
It has also been predicted that by way of sharing, people within an organization share their thoughts, beliefs, knowledge and experience, mutually establish their common understandings Yang, , trust, confidence and mutual relationship which can encourage the team cohesiveness and motivation within the group to achieve the set goals.
The knowledge management process involves many sub processes including knowledge creation, knowledge capture, knowledge codification, knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing which is used for faster decision making and innovation in the organization. Studer explained as a knowledge based system as engineering technique. The technique uses knowledge and its management helping the organization to develop and use widely its expertise throughout the process of its business, especially in the area of production, marketing, design and so on.
KM techniques and tools can be applied in higher education system to improve the overall development.
The areas of application involve research, curriculum development, academic services teaching- learning process , alumni services, formulation and development of strategic plan, administrative services student and alumni , access to potential customers and other stakeholder, library services, development programs etc.
KM initiative and implementation at higher level of education is not an easy task.
Examples of Knowledge Sharing Systems
The researcher conducted the study to find various implementation challenges at higher education institution. The results are as follows:. Major characteristics which highlight KM process effective and efficient in term of organization and its development are:. In the recent years, the education institutions are looking forward for the growth in form of online courses, cyber colleges, and virtual universities around the world which provides tremendous opportunity for the potential students to opt for variety of courses at the click of the mouse.
With the combination of KM and ICT tools, the education institution will be able to provide better educational facilities, administrative services, strategic planning process, student retentions, teaching-learning process, cost effectiveness, data transfer, collaboration, research, faculty development, admissions, expand new web based offerings; students and alumni services, research process curriculum development, work analysis etc.
An institution-wide approach to KM can lead to exponential improvements in sharing knowledge - both explicit and tacit, subsequently surge benefits. The study conducted by International data Corporation and knowledge management magazine among various companies which represented the reason for the use and adoption of KM are: Retain expertise of personnel; Increase customer satisfaction; Improve profit, grow revenue; Support e-business initiative; Shorten product development cycle; Provide project workspaces. The name of the institution has not been revealed where study has been conducted due to policy reasons.
It has been clear that the KM at higher education level of teaching, learning, research and other areas will be the better option for various reasons. In the light of the other reasons higher education institution are linked with the information and communication technology with KM. During the past years very less number of training and development program has been developed to equip teacher and researcher with KM tools and techniques and technology based learning.
Need for development in various higher education components for searching, extracting, sharing, transforming tacit to explicit knowledge , dissemination etc. The individual component of higher education system will affect overall research and education. The professional in higher education system are short of awareness and understanding in the use of information and technology for systematic and need based usage Fuller This technical aspect shortens the scope of KM application.
The academician and other user are not readily accessible to the databases due to undeveloped area. The major form of access may be electronic and technological forms which require complex search and relative time consuming approach. Lack of availability of database and knowledge at easy access will create inefficiency. The higher education experts are using single way of identifying and developing the educational system. They should concentrate on implementing research based system and act upon the initializing research based system design identifying the multidimensional areas and problem at various levels.
What is KM? Knowledge Management Explained
The KM application will be basically focusing on the quality of the organizational process. The KM quality of the process will be based on effective capitalization of the available knowledge in both qualitative and quantitatively to add value for the overall contribution.
The outline principle of the KM is to raise the value with the existing knowledge and intellectual capital creating competitive strength. The primary focus of knowledge management is to acquire, store, analyses, distribute and create new knowledge to add value of its product and services. Knowledge Management in Education may face several barriers that make it difficult to use and share data and information effectively in educational institutions Petrides and Nodine , Implementing KM in an higher education institution HEI can face potential problem of culture and language differences Kimble et al, , geographical distance, other than the technological and place constraints.
The problem varies form organizations to organization based on different aspect existing in the HEI. Some of these constraints are:. Researches Jarvenpaa and Leidner , ; Hepworth, ; Hildreth et al, ; Li, have already linked the space related constraints with the application of KM. Despite the rapid pace of ICT and the ability to move data across distances has not been fully utilized omitting social interaction due to the fact that people need social relationship as a basic need and cannot be removed from the main frame during implementation of KM.
Note: It has been assumed that KM is applied throughout 24x7 for achieving its objective. It has been a fact that people and process will still be affected to confine with the time. Normally, human being as social element interacts with others, put trust and confidence based on the mutual interaction and relationship. The relationships are established during social interaction and face to face interaction which are duly lacking in KM especially when the geographical distance is large.
In order to solve the problems, technologies such as video conferencing, MOOs, have been used for virtual presence.
What is Knowledge Management and why is it important?
However, virtual interaction and collaboration find less effective, than activities performed in face-to-face interaction. The issue of trust and ambiguity that surrounds identity in the virtual world are most easily overcome in face to face interaction Kimble et al, Language can cause possible communication problems in online communities where people come from countries that use different languages especially during the sharing and transfer of information from far distant places. Although English has established itself as the worldwide scientific and business language, many people still lack the proficiency in English to understand and communicate complex concepts and reasoning Van den Branden , Cultural factors may also act as barriers for knowledge management process especially during creation, and sharing among different users and work group.
Galbreath , suggest to create domains of knowledge across departments that share academic interests or disciplines, create institutional knowledge networks and networks with other institutions and corporations. Social interaction and personal contact will support the establishment of trust and intimate relation which will be conducive to the KM process.
Nonaka , Von Krogh and Ichijo , highlight that climate that fosters trust, care, and personal networks among employees is one of the most important conditions for high level of collaboration and knowledge sharing. With the globalization of the market at micro level the higher education institutions and universities and are attempting to provide high-quality program to students along with that to attract large number of potential students regardless of location. The higher education institutions are facing high competition in local and international market due to globalization and rapidly changing technologies and increasing demand for quality education at affordable price and convenience.
The global society realize the fact that the knowledge is one of the most important tool for stay ahead and consequently, knowledge management gain high importance especially in knowledge industry like higher education. Knowledge Management plays vital role in the knowledge industry involving capture, sharing, filtering and dissemination of knowledge for value derived process. The KM framework fig. KM framework constitute of KM factors acting as the backbone and act as guiding principles providing directions for a sound KM implementation. In absence of any of these factors, KM system fails to achieve its objective having difficulty to proceed further.
Change in any of the KM factor will change in KM solution and results. The components follows KM factor with much deeper understanding and divisions. KM process constitutes of KM factor and KM components resulting in KM solution for the particular problem, learning and development through innovation.
KM process includes knowledge capturing, knowledge storage, knowledge distribution, sharing and exploration resulting in KM solution and decision making. In higher education the KM framework results in continuous learning, development and innovation. The knowledge being capture through research and development will be used as intellectual capital enhancing the process of getting knowledge from tacit to explicit for easy retrieval and usage. Other benefits of KM in higher integrates academics, developing administration modules, faculty feedback, provide access and develop online resources for teaching and learning, evaluation of courses, handling students query, assignments submission, verify records and reporting, interface with intranet, grading, build and design programs and courses, integrated with other campuses, conduct and monitor examinations, counseling, information management, technological development, staff management, library development etc.
The major objective of KM is to acquire and sharing knowledge and transfer of individual experience and knowledge to organizational capabilities Yang, Higher the rate of individual knowledge sharing and transfer of individual knowledge transfer, higher the strength of the organization for achieving better learning.
The major impact of KM in the higher education is more likely to affect the teaching-learning and research at both department and at institutional level. The knowledge sharing and transfer depends on various factor ranging from individual to organization and various other factors like incentives, motivation, concentration, beliefs, values, culture, cohesiveness etc. Studies found relationships between education levels and experience, a high degree of education with a lot of work experience, thus sharing this experience with others depended on the personality.
The higher education institution should take high care while implementing KM tools and techniques. The forwarded recommendation suggests some of the thing that should kept in mind while implementing KM techniques at institutional level:. The other paper is a review of the state of the art of speech recognition. Somewhat obviously, the authors conclude that such groups benefit the organizations of which they form part, and ought to be fostered by management.
The remaining two papers in this category deal with "human and social factors in knowledge management" and with possibility that one's view of knowledge management is likely to be determined by one's personality type - while this argument might have some force, however, the paper is devoid of data and simply offers speculation. Even the first of these two is, in part, a thinly disguised discussion of technology, so perhaps it ought to go into the first category of technology related papers.
Quite how this constitutes 'knowledge management' is not explained. Two of the remaining three papers deal with what we might term business processes: Fahey, et al. Here, 'knowledge' is, in general, a synonym for information and, where it is not, the authors are describing ways of organizing people so that information can be shared.
The final paper in the collection is, 'Where did knowledge management come from? However, no evidence is produced to support this contention, so we must assume that it is little more than management consultancy rhetoric. I have given this issue of IBM Systems Journal more attention than the others partly because some of the papers are genuinely interesting and partly because they are freely available on the Web. However, they reveal much of the same tendencies as in the other journals: a concern with information technology, a tendency to elide the distinction between 'knowledge' what I know and 'information' what I am able to convey about what I know , and confusion of the management of work practices in the organization with the management of knowledge.
Again, we have a special issue devoted to knowledge management and, interesting to note, no other issue in had any papers on the subject. We have here a disparate mix of papers one is the Editorial , half of them concerned with technology. Another special issue and, again, one of the items is the Editorial. As with the other journals, one of the things that jumps out of the page is the lack of any consensus about what 'knowledge management' might be. Another paper, on 'dispersed knowledge' in organizations Becker, is a case of 'knowledge' being used as a synonym for information.
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